German Bauhaus ("School of Building", 1919-33) and Russian Vkhutemas ("Art and Technology School", 1920-30), were the first schools - both state-sponsored - to merge art, craft and technology.


A new era that came with the end of the World War I, the fall of German monarchy and the victory of Russian Revolution demanded new style. That style - influenced by modernism and Russian constructivism - was marked by harmony between objects' function and design. While preserving artistic merit, the design became simple, functional, and consistent with mass production (cheap and non-decorative).


Although criticised for its mechanistic views of human nature - 'home hygiene without home atmosphere' - the Bauhaus and Vkhutemas thinking had a major impact on Western art, architecture, furniture design and design education. Nearly a century later, their teaching science to artists, or using tubular steel for making furniture remain highly popular. The Bauhaus's proclamation of 'building' being 'the ultimate aim of all creative activity' is still a central concept for building nations and economies: without creativity there is no transformation.

Bauhaus and Vkhutemas

Cantilever chair



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